No one knows exactly why the immune system occasionally begins to attack healthy organs and tissue, triggering chronic autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis and metabolic disorders. But a new study now provides an answer to how certain autoimmune diseases spread in the body. This in turn paves the way for the development of more targeted medicine, which can potentially prevent diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and the somewhat rarer lupus from developing.
This is the hope brought forth by the new research result, which has just been published in the scientific journal Cell. A researcher from Aarhus University is one of the people behind the discovery, in collaboration with colleagues from Harvard Medical School and Boston Children’s Hospital.
Important knowledge for developing medicine
When a person suffers an infection, the immune system normally forms antibodies that neutralise the disease by binding to components of bacteria and viruses, known as antigens. The same process takes place with some autoimmune diseases, albeit with the crucial difference that the immune system produces antibodies to fight components of the body’s own cells and tissues, known as autoantigens.
Medical doctors and researchers have long known that the disease develops over time, so that more organs and tissues come under attack. In lupus patients this is seen as for example joint pain, kidney damage and rashes. But no one has understood how this process evolves.
“We have discovered that the B cells which produce the antibodies over time recruit other B cells to develop harmful antibodies. The disease thus spreads like ripples in water. The fact that we can now show precisely what happens at a cellular level for some of these diseases is a big step in the right direction when it comes to developing targeted medicine that can curb the negative spiral which the immune system initiates,” explains Søren Egedal Degn, who is assistant professor at the Department of Biomedicine at Aarhus University and the initiator behind the research project.
He emphasises that autoimmune diseases are a highly complex field, and that the new knowledge only applies to some of the diseases. On the other hand, it can be implemented in current medical treatment for rheumatoid arthritis and lupus, making it possible to treat patients at an early stage. However, it will take around five years before any new medicine is ready for use, as it must first be developed and tested.
Source: Aarhus University