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Immunomodulatory effect of tonsil-derived mesenchymal stem cells in mouse model of allergic rhinitis

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Posted June 21, 2015

BACKGROUND:

Although several studies have claimed that mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) derived from human tissues can ameliorate allergic airway inflammation, the immunomodulatory mechanism of MSCs remains unclear.

OBJECTIVE:

We aimed to determine the effects and the underlying mechanism of tonsil-derived MSCs (T-MSC) on allergic inflammation compared with adipose tissue- derived stem cells (ASC) in a mouse model of allergic rhinitis (AR).

METHODS:

MSCs were isolated from human palatine tonsil (T-MSC) and the surface markers were analyzed. The effect of T-MSCs was evaluated in 24 BALB/c mice that were randomly divided into four groups (negative control group, positive control group, T-MSC group, and ASC group). MSCs were administered intravenously to ovalbumin (OVA) sensitized mice (T-MSC and ASC groups) on days 18 to 23, and subsequent OVA challenge was conducted daily from days 24 to 28. Several parameters of allergic inflammation were assessed.

RESULTS:

T-MSC and ASC had similar characteristics in surface markers. Intravenous injection of T-MSC significantly reduced allergic symptoms, eosinophil infiltration, serum total, and OVA-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE), and the nasal and systemic T-helper (Th) 2 cytokine profile. Further analysis revealed that nasal innate cytokines, such as interleukin (IL) 25 and IL-33, and chemokines, such as CCL11, CCL24, induction was suppressed in T-MSCs injected groups, which explained their underlying mechanism. In addition, the T-MSC group had more inhibition of allergic inflammation than did the ASC group, which might be attributed to the more proliferative activity of T-MSC.

CONCLUSION:

Administration of T-MSC effectively reduced allergic symptoms and inflammatory parameters in the mouse model of AR. T-MSC treatment reduced Th2 cytokines and OVA-specific IgE secretion from B cells. In addition, innate cytokine (IL-25 and IL-33) expression and eotaxin messenger RNA expression was inhibited in the nasal mucosa, which is suggestive of the mechanism of reduced allergic inflammation. Therefore, T-MSC treatment is potentially an alternative therapeutic modality in AR.

Source: PubMed

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