Cardiovascular risk factors such as aging, smoking, and insulin resistance may lead to atherosclerosis through various mechanisms of which their association with mitochondrial dysfunction may be one of them. In order to examine this hypothesis, scientists from The Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA, assessed the association between elevated blood lactate, a marker of mitochondrial dysfunction, and carotid atherosclerosis.
From a total of 2066 participants from the Atherosclerosis Risk In Communities Carotid MRI study, 1496 were included for this analysis. Wall Thickness and Lipid core presence were measured using gadolinium-enhanced MRI. Blood lactate was categorized into quartiles (Q1: <5.9 mg/dl, Q2: 5.9-7.2 mg/dl, Q3: 7.3-9.2 mg/dl, and Q4: >9.2 mg/dl).
Of the 1496 study participants, 763 (51%) were females, 296 (19.8%) African American, 539 (36%) obese and 308 (20.6%) had diabetes. There was a strong and graded association between lactate and wall thickness [Q1: 1.08 mm (95% CI: 1.01 mm-1.15 mm), Q2: 1.33 mm (95% CI: 1.19 mm-1.47 mm), Q3: 1.44 (95% CI: 1.34 mm-1.54 mm) and Q4: 1.62 (95% CI: 1.53 mm-1.71 mm); p for trend <0.001] after adjusting for age, gender, ethnicity, stature, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, LDL, High sensitivity C reactive protein (HsCRP), statin use, thiazolidinedione use, hypertension, and diabetes. This association was attenuated, but still significant, after adjusting for a marker of insulin resistance, the triglyceride/HDL ratio, [Q1: 0.96 mm (95% CI: 0.82 mm-1.10 mm), Q2: 1.17 mm (95% CI: 1.08 mm-1.26 mm), Q3: 1.18 mm (95% CI: 1.07 mm-1.29 mm), Q4: 1.22 mm (95% CI: 1.13 mm-1.31 mm), p for linear trend 0.039]. There was no association of lactate with lipid core presence after adjustment for wall thickness.
CONCLUSIONS: Blood lactate is associated with carotid atherosclerosis. Attenuation of the association with adjustment for triglyceride/HDL ratio, a marker of insulin resistance, suggests that lactate’s association with carotid atherosclerosis may be related to insulin resistance.